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    « Idioma en Colombia | Main
    viernes
    may042012

    Language in Colombia

    Reasons that it’s difficult to communicate in Spanish

    Following are some of the reasons that it’s difficult to communicate in Spanish:

    • The people speak quickly, use a lot of jargon and have different accents.
    • My listening and hearing abilities were inferior to my reading and writing abilities.
    • The majority of the Spanish television programs don't offer subtitles in English or Spanish.
    • Many dictionaries don't offer examples to understand the specific use of each word.
    • One speaks Castellano.

    Suggestions for learning Spanish

    Here are some suggestions so your experience with Spanish is easier. I recommend to you all that you:

    • Practice the four communication modes daily (listening, speaking, reading and writing).
    • Spend your time with locals (e.g., make friendships, attend classes, volunteer and participate in activities).
    • Do everything in Spanish (e.g., change the language on your cell phones and computers to Spanish).
    • Increase your understanding of the words and phrases that Colombians use, including the jargon. After all, you're in Colombia, not Spain, and each country is unique.
    • Learn what is necessary about Castellano (e.g., in general, one pronounces the double “l” (“ll”)  and the “y” in Castellano in the same way that one pronounces the “j” in English; and, “vos” can be a substitute for “tú”). 
    • Ask for help when you don't understand something.
    • Be patient. Time cures everything.

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - common words and phrases

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases of Colombian vocabulary so you are able to enjoy your Colombian experience:

    Words and phrases (oficial and jargon)
    Word or Phrase (Spanish)       Meaning (English)       Frequency      
    afán hurry (Colombia) (e.g., if someone in Colombia asks you, "¿Tienes afán?", this typically means "Are you in a hurry?") 3
    a la orden "at your service" 1
    a la parrilla; al carbón "grilled" 3
    a ver "so"; typically appears at the start of a sentence 3
    adjuntar (por ej., "adjuntar un archivo") "attach" (e.g., "attach a document") 1
    aguardiente alcohol commonly consumed by groups of Colombians in shotglasses at a restaurant or bar 3
    ahora; ahorita "not now"; "later"; "never" 1
    al horno  "baked" 3
    Antioquia land of the paisas; 1 of about 40 departments of Colombia that includes the city of Medellín 3
    apenas "scarcely"; "hardly"; "barely"; "just" (por ej., "Apenas llegue te marco." means "When I arrive, I will call you.") 3
    asado "BBQ" 3
    aseo "cleaning" 3
    bacán (m); bacana (f); genial "great"; typically referring to a person 3
    ¿Bien o no?; ¿Bien o qué? "How are you?"; literally, "Good or not?" or "Good or what?" 1
    brackets "braces"; referring to orthodontics for teeth 3
    ¡Buenas noches! "Good night!" 2
    ¡Buenas tardes!; ¡Buenas! "Good afternoon!" (until 5pm); "Good evening!" (after 5pm) 1
    ¡Buenos días!; ¡Buenos! "Good morning!" 1
    caleño native of Santiago de Cali 2
    cédula "ID"; typically refers to ID issued by the government 2
    centro comercial mall; commercial center 2
    chao "goodbye"; typically used in Colombia as a substitute for "adios", which is seldomly used 1
    charro (m); charra (f) "funny"; referring to a person 3
    chévere "great" 2
    chiva bus (e.g., in Colombia, "chiva" typically refers to a bus that is used for a mobile party); chiva has additional meanings, such as female goat 3
    chucu-chucu all music of the tropical genre that can be danced to 3
    ¿Como sigues? "How are you in relation to your health problem/ailment?"; typically, if you are sick or have a health issue/an ailment and your Colombian friends or family know this, they are more likely to ask you "¿Como sigues?" until you are recovered/return to your normal state of health; after you are recovered/return to your normal state of health, it is likely they will stop asking you "¿Como sigues?" and resume asking you the Colombian equivalents of "How are you?" (e.g., "¿Bien o no?", "¿Bien o qué?", "¿Qué más?") 2
    con gusto "you’re welcome"; literally, "with pleasure" 1
    con quién with whom (e.g., "¿Con quién hablo?" can be the equivalent of "With whom am I speaking?" or "Who's calling?"; "¿Con quién vas a ir?" means "With whom are you going to go?") 2
    conseguir "to get"; "to obtain" 3
    contaminación "pollution" 3
    crispetas "popcorn"; often served complimentarily with drinks at a restaurant or bar; complimentary mango slices are also common 2
    crossover mixture of different musical genres typical of discotecas 3
    cuenta con eso "count on it" 3
    de una "let's do it" 3
    descargar "download" 2
    Dime Frequently, this is an informal response; for example, if someone says, "Tengo una pregunta." ("I have a question"), one is able to respond, "Dime" (in other words, "Tell me" or "What is your question?") 2
    diminutivos words with suffixes that change the meaning (e.g., florecita) 1
    ¡Eh, Ave María, pues! "Wow!" 2
    empanada; arepa; buñuelo; morcilla; natilla; arroz con coco; bandeja paisa; ajiaco typical Colombian food 1
    en la chanda; en la mala; en la olla; tirado; sin plata in the bad; out of money; full of problems (e.g., in Colombia, "estoy en la chanda", "estoy en la mala", "estoy en la olla" or "estoy tirado" can be the equivalent of, "I'm not well off", "things aren't good for me", "I'm full of problems" or "I'm out of money"; if someone in Colombia says "estoy tirado" or "estoy en la olla", this may more frequently mean "I'm out of money"; "estoy sin plata" can mean "I'm out of money" or "I don't have any money with me") 3
    entregar "to deliver" 2
    Estoy amañado en … "I am happy in …" 2
    gaseosa "soft drink" 3
    gracias a Dios "thanks to God" 1
    ¡Hágale pues! Do it! 3
    hasta luego see you later; literally, "until later"; this phrase can be used to say goodbye to someone and very often is used as a formal, polite way of saying goodbye to anyone, including strangers, when departing an elevator 2
    igual tú; igualmente likewise (e.g., if you say to someone in Spanish, "qué disfrutes el fin de semana", which is the equivalent of "I hope you enjoy the weekend", the person may respond to you, "igual tú" o "igualmente", which is the equivalent of "likewise" or "I hope you enjoy the weekend, too") 3
    incumplido (m), incumplida (f) unreliable; way to describe someone who doesn't do what he/she says he/she will do 3
    jajaja "hahaha"; pronunciation is the same in Spanish and English; in Spanish, one pronounces the letter "j" in the same way as one pronounces the letter "h" in English 1
    jejeje "hehehe"; pronunciation is the same in Spanish and English; in Spanish, one pronounces the letter "j" in the same way as one pronounces the letter "h" in English 1
    listo "OK" 1
    loliar to look; to browse (e.g., if you ask someone to look at a website, after doing it, he/she may say to you, "Ya me lolié en el sitio de Web", which is the equivalent of saying "I already took a look at the website"; if you're browsing in a store and aren't interested in buying something and an employee at the store asks you if you would like assistance, one way to respond is "No, gracias, estoy loliando", which is the equivalent of saying, "No, thank you, I'm browsing") 3
    mango; lulo; banano; pina; papaya; guanábana; mora; maracuyá; fresa; higo; chontaduro typical Colombian fruits 1
    manillas bracelets; typically refers to the type of paper, discardable bracelet you may receive at a bar, club or special event that gives you permission to enter and/or other privileges (e.g,. VIP access) 3
    mera tremendous (e.g., in Colombia, "estoy en la mera chanda" can be the equivalent of "things are tremendously bad for me" or "I'm completely out of money" or similar) 3
    ¿Me regalas un minuto? "Will you lend me your cellphone so I can make a call?"; literally, "Will you gift me a minute?" 2
    Me traes cositas "Bring me little things"; you may hear this often if you tell your Colombian friends you’re taking a trip outside the city or country 3
    ni idea "I don't have any idea"; "ni idea" is an abbreviated way of saying "no tengo ninguna idea" 3
    notaria "notary" 3
    ¡Oe! an informal response, such as "Sí, Señor (or Señora)", "Dime" or "¿Qué necesitas?" 3
    o sea  "in other words"; typically appears at the start of a sentence 2
    paila; grave serious; in a serious situation; not good (e.g., in Colombia, if a professional dancer has an injured leg, he or she may say something like "estoy paila por la pierna" or "estoy grave por la pierna", which is the equivalent of "things aren't good for me because of my leg") 3
    paisa native of Antioquia, Caldas and Risaralda 2
    parcero "partner"; "pal" 1
    pico y placa government-enforced schedule that indicates when Colombians are permitted to use their vehicles; certain forms of transportation do not have pico y placa requirements (e.g., motorcycles do not have pico y placa requirements, and motorcycles are seemingly more common in Colombia as a result of this reason and other reasons (e.g,. lower cost of ownership, ability to drive motorcycles between lanes to pass vehicles/save time) 2
    platudo (m), platuda (f); well-heeled; in the money (e.g., in Colombia, "estás platudo" can be the equivalent of "you have a lot of money"; if you pay for a cup of a coffee with a bill of a high demonination and the employee says to you, "estás platudo", this is a way of saying, "wow, you have a lot of money" or similar) 3
    polvo "dust" 3
    portátil laptop 3
    pues "well"; typically appears at the start or end of a sentence 1
    Que estés bien "Wishing you well"; literally, "That you’re good" or "That you’re well"; you’ll often hear this after placing an order 2
    ¿Qué más?; ¿Qué hubo pues? "How are you?"; "What’s up?" 1
    ¿Qué opinas? "What do you think?"; "What is your opinion?" 3
    Qué pena; Hay, qué pena; Qué pena contigo This is often said to express that one is aware of an inconvenience to you; for example, if you buy something at a café and the employee forgets to give you your change, the employee may say, "Qué pena", which is the equivalent of saying "Disculpa" or "Discúlpeme" ["Excuse me (for causing you this inconvenience)" or "Lo siento". Mi error le ha impuesto a Usted una inconveniencia." ("I'm sorry. My error has imposed an inconvenience on you.") 2
    redactar un correo  "compose an email" 2
    rico "tasty" or "delicious" 1
    rolo; cachaco; bogotano native of Bogota 2
    Semana Santa holy week in Colombia that falls on same week as Easter Sunday 3
    sencillo "simple"; also often used to refer to small denominations of money in singular "sencillo" and plural "sencillos" 2
    sombrilla "umbrella" 3
    taco "traffic" 3
    te dejo "I’m going to leave you now"; used to politely end a conversation and often followed by the reason 3
    te quiero "you're important to me"; can be said to a family member or a friend in a way that does not imply intimacy; can also be said to a significant other in a way that does imply intimacy 3
    te ves (tú); se ve (Usted) you look (e.g., "te ves muy bien" is the equivalent of "you look very good"; "te ves" is derived from the Spanish reflexive verb "verse", which means "to be seen" 3
    torre "tower"; often used to refer to a tall building, such as an apartment or office building 3
    trancón "traffic jam" 3
    viejoteca dance venue for traditional music, such as porro, fox, tango, bachata, merengue and salsa 3
    vivero "nursery"; referring to plants 3
    ya "already"; "in the near future" 1
    Ya te la entrego "I’ll deliver it to you soon" 3

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - common abbreviations

    Following are some examples of common and helpful abbreviations of Colombian vocabulary so you are able to enjoy your Colombian experience:

    Abbreviations (jargon)
    Abbreviation (Spanish)       Meaning (Spanish)       Meaning (English)      
    apto apartamento apartament
    bn bien good
    maso más o menos more or less
    q que that
    ola hola hello
    pa para for; intended for
    parce, parche parcero partner; friend
    porfa por favor please
    ps pues well
    tonc entonces then
    ombe hombre man
    guaro aguardiente aguardiente; alcohol commonly consumed by groups of Colombians
    fb Facebook Facebook
    msn Microsoft Messenger/Microsoft Live, correo electrónico de Hotmail Microsoft Messenger/Microsoft Live, Hotmail email account
    Sr. señor Mr.
    Sra. señora Mrs., Ms.; in certain Spanish-speaking countries (e.g., Spain), "Sra." o "señora" more often signifies that the female you are addressing is married; in other Spanish-speaking countries (e.g., Colombia), "Sra." o "señora" more often signifies that you are addressing a female adult respectfully and would typically apply if the female adult you are addressing is mature in age (e.g., 20 years or older) and/or behavior
    Srta. señorita Miss, Ms.; "Srta." o "señorita" more often signifies that the female you are addressing is not married and/or not mature in age and/or behavior
    xq porque because

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - animals and insects

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about animals and insects.

    Animals and insects vocabulary
    Word or Phrase (English)       Word or Phrase (Spanish)      
    aardvark oso hormiguero
    alligator caimán
    anchovy anchoa
    ant hormiga
    antelope antílope
    antler asta
    aquarium acuario
    barn; stable establo
    bat murciélago
    beak pico
    bear oso
    beaver castor
    bee abeja
    beetle escarabajo
    bird; fowl; poultry ave (significa "bird", "fowl" o "poultry"; pájaro (significa "bird")
    blackbird mirlo
    bluebird; another meaning of "azulejo" is "tile" azulejo
    buffalo búfalo
    bug; insect insecto ("bug" o "insect"); bicho ("bug")
    bull toro
    bunny conejito
    butterfly mariposa
    cage jaula
    camel camello
    canary canario
    cat gato
    caterpillar oruga
    chick pollito
    chicken pollo
    chimpanzee chimpancé
    chipmunk ardilla listada
    cicada cigarra
    claw zarpa; garra
    cobweb; spider's web telaraña ("spider's web" or "cobweb"); tela de araña ("spider's web")
    cockroach cucaracha
    cocoon capullo
    coral coralino
    cow vaca
    coyote coyote
    crab cangrejo
    crane grulla
    cricket grillo
    crocodile cocodrilo
    crow cuervo
    deer venado
    dinosaur dinosaurio
    dog perro
    doghouse perrera
    dolphin delfín
    donkey burro
    dove; another meaning of "paloma" is "pigeon" paloma
    dragon dragón
    dragonfly libélula
    duck pato
    duckling patito
    eagle águila
    earthworm lombriz de tierra
    eel anguila
    egg huevo
    elephant elefante
    elk alce
    farm granja; finca
    feather pluma
    fin aleta
    fish; bluefish pescado (significa "fish"); pez (significa "fish" o "bluefish")
    fishbowl pecera
    fish (to fish) pescar
    fishing rod caña de pescar
    flamingo flamenco
    fly mosca
    fox zorro
    frog rana
    gazelle gacela
    gill branquia
    giraffe jirafa
    goat cabra
    goose ganso
    gorilla gorila
    grasshopper saltamontes
    hamster marmota; rata del trigo
    hedgehog erizo
    hen gallina
    hippopotamus hipopótamo
    hive colmena
    hog; pig cerdo
    honeycomb panal de miel
    hoof casco
    horn cuerno
    hornet avispón
    horse caballo
    horseshoe herradura
    hummingbird colibrí
    hyena hiena
    jaguar jaguar
    jay arrendajo
    jellyfish medusa
    kangaroo canguro
    kitten gatito
    koala bear koala
    ladybug mariquita
    lamb cordero
    lion león
    lizard lagartija; lagarto
    llama llama
    lobster langosta
    macaw guacamayo
    mammal mamífero
    mammoth mamut
    marsupial marsupial
    mermaid serena
    minnow pececillo
    mole topo
    monkey; ape mono
    moose alce
    mosquito mosquito; zancudo
    moth polilla; mariposa nocturna
    mouse ratón
    mule mula
    muskrat ratón almizclero
    mutt; another meaning of "bobo" is "clown" bobo
    nest nido
    net; another meaning of "red" is "network", such as a "computer network" red
    newt tritón
    octupus pulpo
    orangutang orangután
    ostrich avestruz
    otter nutria
    owl búho; lechuza
    parrot; another meaning of "payagayo" is "chatterbox" loro; papagayo
    peacock pavo real
    penguin pingüino
    pet animal doméstico
    pigeon; another meaning of "paloma" is "dove" paloma; pichón
    puppy cachorro
    quail codorniz
    rabbit conejo
    raccoon mapache
    rat rata
    reindeer reno
    rhinoceros rinoceronte
    roadrunner correcamino
    robin petirrojo
    rooster gallo
    sardine sardina
    scorpion alacrán
    sea gull gaviota
    sea horse caballito de mar
    seal foca
    sea urchin erizo de mar
    shark tiburón
    sheep; another meaning of "carnero" is "ram" oveja; carnero
    shell concha
    shrimp camarón (singular); camarones (plural)
    snail caracol
    snake culebra; serpiente
    spider araña
    squid calamar
    squirrel ardilla
    starfish estrella de mar
    stingray raya
    swallow; other meanings for "golondrina" are "furniture van" and "wanderer" golondrina
    swan cisne
    tadpole renacuajo
    tail cola
    tiger tigre
    toad sapo
    toucan toucan
    trout trucha
    trunk trompa
    turkey buzzard gallinazo
    turtle tortuga
    unicorn unicornio
    vulture; buzzard buitre
    walrus walrus
    wasp avispa
    weasel comadreja
    whale ballena
    wolf lobo
    woodpecker pájaro carpintero
    worm gusano
    zebra cebra
    zoo parque zoológico

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - body and health

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about the body and health.

    Body and health vocabulary
    Word or Phrase (English)       Word or Phrase (Spanish)       Type (English)       Type (Spanish)      
    brain cerebro, seso organs órganos
    colon colon organs órganos
    heart corazón organs órganos
    intestine intestino organs órganos
    liver hígado organs órganos
    muscle músculo organs órganos
    skin piel organs órganos
    stomach (internal) estómago organs órganos
    cheek mejilla head cabeza
    ear oído, oreja head cabeza
    eye ojo head cabeza
    eyebrow ceja head cabeza
    eyelash pestaña head cabeza
    hair (referring to a single hair on one's body) pelo head cabeza
    hair (referring to all hair on your head) cabello head cabeza
    head cabeza head cabeza
    lip labio head cabeza
    molar muela head cabeza
    mouth boca head cabeza
    neck cuello head cabeza
    neck cuello head cabeza
    nose nariz head cabeza
    sinus seno head cabeza
    throat garganta head cabeza
    tongue lengua head cabeza
    tooth diente head cabeza
    abdomen (external) vientre, abdomen torso torso
    back espalda torso torso
    belly button ombligo torso torso
    breast (of a woman) seno torso torso
    butt or buttock nalga torso torso
    chest pecho torso torso
    hip cadera torso torso
    spine columna, columna vertebral torso torso
    torso torso torso torso
    armpit axila; sobaco arm brazo
    elbow codo arm brazo
    finger dedo, dedo de la mano arm brazo
    fingernail uña arm brazo
    hand mano arm brazo
    shoulder hombro arm brazo
    ankle tobillo leg pierna
    calf pantorrilla leg pierna
    foot pie leg pierna
    heel talón leg pierna
    knee rodilla leg pierna
    kneecap rótula leg pierna
    thigh muslo leg pierna
    toe dedo, dedo del pie leg pierna
    toenail uña del dedo del pie leg pierna
    abdominal pain cólico health salud
    accident and emergency department (in hospital) urgencias, sala de urgencias health salud
    allergic alérgico (m), alérgica (f) health salud
    allergy alergia health salud
    ambulance ambulancia health salud
    anorexia anorexia health salud
    bald calvo health salud
    cardiovascular specialist internista cardiovascular health salud
    cardiovascular surgeon cirujano cardiovascular (m), cirujana cardiovascular (f) health salud
    catch a cold resfriarse health salud
    clinical laboratory laboratorio clínico health salud
    cold gripa health salud
    contagious contagioso health salud
    container envase health salud
    contraindications contraindicaciones (often refers to reasons not to use on medicine packages) health salud
    dizziness mareo, vahído health salud
    doctor's office, consulting room consultorio health salud
    Do not induce vomiting. No provoque/induzca vómito. health salud
    dosage dosis, posología (often refers to recommended dosage on medicine packages) health salud
    dose dosis health salud
    dressing (for a wound); "cura" can be the equivalent of adhesive bandage (e.g., BAND-AID) apósito; vendaje; cura health salud
    echography, sonography ecografía health salud
    emotion emoción health salud
    envelope sobre health salud
    feeling sentimiento health salud
    fever fiebre health salud
    fracture fractura health salud
    gasa gauze health salud
    general surgeon cirujano general (m), cirujana general (f) health salud
    headache dolor de cabeza health salud
    healing curativo (m); curativa (f) health salud
    healthy saludable, sano health salud
    hearing oído health salud
    How is your recovering coming along?; How are you doing?; How are you feeling? ¿Cómo sigues? health salud
    how to use modo de empleo (often refers to instructions for use on medicine packages) health salud
    hypersensibility hipersensibilidad health salud
    I called the doctor to make an appointment. Llamé al médico para pedir hora.; Llamé al médico para pedir una cita. health salud
    indications indicaciones (often refers to purpose of use on medicine packages) health salud
    infection infección f health salud
    inflammation inflamación health salud
    injection, shot inyección health salud
    internist internista; especialista en medicina interna health salud
    laboratory laboratorio health salud
    lame; weak; with a limp (e.g,. in Colombia, if you have a leg injury and someone asks you, "¿Todavía estás caminando cojo?", this can be the equivalent of "Are you still walking with a limp?") cojo (m); coja (f) health salud
    limp; hobble (e.g,. in Colombia, if you have a leg injury and someone asks you, "¿Estás cojeando?", this can be the equivalent of "Are you limping?") cojear health salud
    loss/lack of appetite inapetencia; la falta de apetito; disminución del apetito; pérdida de apetito health salud
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Resonancia; imagen por/de resonancia magnética (MRI) health salud
    medicine medicamento, medicina, remedio health salud
    nausea náusea health salud
    pain dolor health salud
    physical therapy fisioterapia health salud
    pills pastillas health salud
    rehab, rehabilitation rehabilitación health salud
    saline solution solución salina health salud
    session (singular), sessions (plural) sesión (singular), sesiones (en plural) health salud
    sickness, illness enfermedad health salud
    somnolence, drowsiness, sleepiness somnolencia health salud
    surgeon cirujano (m), cirujana (f) health salud
    surgery cirugía health salud
    symptom síntoma health salud
    thorax surgeon irujano de tórax health salud
    to be allergic to something ser alérgico a algo health salud
    to have insomnia estar desvelado (m), desvelada (f) health salud
    to laugh reír health salud
    to smile sonreír health salud
    to yawn bostezar health salud
    vomiting vómito, vómitos health salud
    whiplash latigazo cervical health salud

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - dining experience

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about the dining room and the dining experience.

    Dining experience vocabulary
    English Spanish
    appetite apetito
    appetizer apertivo
    appetizing apetitivo (m), apetitiva (f)
    bowl
    • tazón (con más frecuencia, se utiliza como un recipiente para comer cereal con leche, para mezlar pocos ingredientes, tal como 1 o 2 huevos con leche o crema antes de hacer huevos revueltos, o a propósito parecido; o sea, un recipiente hondo donde se prepara y/o se sirva las comidas o bebidas, aunque comidas  más que bebidas)
    • cuenco (más o menos un sinónimo de “bol” y puede ser construido de materiales de la tierra, tal como barro)
    • bol (con más frecuencia, se utiliza para preparar los alimentos; o sea, un recipiente de tamaños diferentes en forma de tazón para preparar las comidas)
    • taza (con más frecuencia, se utiliza para servir y tomar una bebida, una porción/ración, tal como chocolate caliente, café, té o aguapanela; o sea, un recipiente hondo donde se prepara y/o se sirva las comidas o bebidas, aunque bebidas más que comidas)
    • recipiente (todos... un tazón, un cuenco, un bol y una taza... son recipientes donde se puede echar alimentos)
    fruit bowl frutero
    bread basket panera, canasta de pan
    Bring a big appetite. Venga con hambre.
    centerpiece centro de mesa, pieza central
    chef chef, jefe de cocina (m), jefa de cocina (f), cocinero (m), cocinera (f)
    cloth napkin servilleta de tela
    coffee cup taza de café, posillo
    coffee pot cafetera
    compliments to the chef felicitaciones al chef/cocinero, felicitaciones para el chef/cocinero, saludos hacia el chef/cocinero, cumplidos al chef/cocinero (por ej., "Si me cae bien la comida, entonces me gusta hacerle cumplidos al chef.")
    culinary culinario
    culinary delight deleite culinario, placer gastronómico, placer al gusto
    delicious rico
    dessert postre
    dining comida
    dining out together cenar juntos afuera
    dining etiquette etiqueta del comedor
    dining room comedor
    dining room table mesa de comedor
    don't chew with your mouth open no mastique con la boca abierta
    drinking glass vaso, vaso de vidrio
    eat together comer juntos
    eat a meal together comer una comida juntos
    eating utensils cubiertos, utensilios para comer
    enjoy the food, help yourselves to the food buen provecho; provecho, espero que les guste
    fork tenedor
    french fries papas a la francesa; papas francesa; papas fritas
    gourmet food comida gourmet
    healthy appetite buen apetito
    How big is your appetite? ¿Cuán grande es su apetito?
    How would you like it cooked?; to learn the options for how meat, poultry or fish is cooked, see "rare", "medium rare", "medium", "medium well" and "well done" ¿Que término?; para aprender las opciones de como se puede terminar la carne, la carne de ave o pescado, buscar "azul", "un cuarto", "medio", "tres cuartos" y "bien asado"
    It will ruin your appetite. Le quitará el apetito.; Le quitará la gana de comer.
    I was/went grocery shopping. Estuve mercando.; Estuve en el supermercado. Fui al supermercado.; Fui a comprar las provisiones/viveres/mercancías.; Fui a la tienda a comprar provisiones/viveres/mercancías.; Fui a la compra.; Fui a hacer la compra.; Fui a mercar.
    knife cuchillo
    ladle (e.g., for serving soup) cucharón (por ej., para servir una sopa)
    main course plato principal
    medium; referring to how or how long meat, poultry or fish is cooked medio; sangroso
    medium rare; bloody; referring to how or how long meat, poultry or fish is cooked un cuarto; sangroso
    medium well; referring to how or how long meat, poultry or fish is cooked tres cuartos
    napkin holder/ring servilletero
    paper napkin servilleta
    picnic basket canasta de picnic, canasta para bocadillos
    pitcher (to serve beverage from) jarro (se utiliza para servir una bebida)
    placemat mantel individual
    plate plato
    Please eat before the food gets cold. Coma, por favor, se enfría.
    Put your napkin on your lap. Coloque la servilleta en su regazo., Ponga la servilleta en su regazo.
    rare; seared; almost not cooked; referring to how or how long meat, poultry or fish is cooked azul; casi crudo
    salad bowl ensaladera
    salad fork tenedor para la ensalada
    salad dressing vinagreta, aderezo para la ensalada
    salt and pepper shaker salero y pimintero
    saucer (you put a tea or coffee cup on a saucer so you can rest the teaspoon on it after stirring) platillo
    serving porción de un alimento, ración
    serving plate/dish plato de servir, plato para servir
    serving spoon cuchara de servir, cuchara para servir
    serving tray bandeja
    serving utensils utensilios para servir
    set the table poner la mesa
    silverware vajilla de plata, cubiertos
    spoon cuchara
    soup bowl sopero, recipiente para la sopa
    soup spoon cuchara, sopera, cuchara sopera
    steak knife cuchillo cocinero/de cocina, cuchillo carnicero
    steamed potato papa al vapor
    tablecloth mantel
    tablespoon
    • cucharota (cuchara grande; de jerga; se refiere a la cuchara; por ej., "se utiliza una cucharota para medir la cantidad de sal para una receta")
    • cucharada (el contenido, tales como  sal, azúcar o aceite; por ej, "una cucharada de sal")
    teacup taza de té
    teapot tetera
    teaspoon (used to stir tea or coffee)
    • cucharadita (el contenido, tales como  sal, azúcar o aceite; por ej, "una cucharadita de sal")
    • cuchara pequeña (se refiere a la cuchara; por ej., "se utiliza una cucharadita para medir la cantidad de sal para una receta")
    The food is delicious. La comida está deliciosa.
    tongs (e.g., salad tongs) pinzas (por ej., pinzas para ensalada)
    well; well done; referring to how or how long meat, poultry or fish is cooked bien asado
    What time will dinner be served at? ¿A qué hora(s) se servirá la cena?, ¿A qué hora(s) se va a servir la cena?
    What would you like to drink?; Something to drink? (not a complete sentence; nonetheless, it is a common abbreviated phrase); Would you like something to drink? ¿Que deseas para tomar?; ¿Algo para tomar?; ¿Te gustaría tomar algo?
    wine glass copa de vino
    Would you like me to heat up the food for you? ¿Le gustaría que caliente la comida para usted?

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - clothing and accessories

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about clothing and accessories.

    Clothing and accessories vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English) Word or phrase (Spanish) Type (English) Type (Spanish)      
    bathrobe albornoz bathwear accesorios para baño/bañarse;
    bluejeans bluejeans (Colombia); jeans; vaqueros (Spain); bluyines; tejanos bottoms ropa para piernas
    dress pants pantalones elegantes;  pantalón de vestir bottoms ropa para piernas
    jeans that aren't blue, such as "black jeans" ("jeans de negro") or brown jeans ("jeans de café") jeans bottoms ropa para piernas
    miniskirt minifalda bottoms ropa para piernas
    pants; trousers pantalón (singular), pantalones (plural) bottoms ropa para piernas
    shorts pantaloneta (Colombia); pantalones cortos; short; bermudas; culotes bottoms ropa para piernas
    skirt falda bottoms ropa para piernas
    hood capucha components componentes
    longsleeve manga larga components componentes
    shortsleeve manga corta components componentes
    sleeves mangas components componentes
    strap; typically, refers to the strap of a shirt/top tira components componentes
    cocktail dress vestido de noche; vestido de cóctel dresses vestidos
    vestido dress dresses vestidos
    dress shirt camisa de etiqueta dresswear ropa de etiqueta
    dress suit traje de etiqueta dresswear ropa de etiqueta
    suit traje dresswear ropa de etiqueta
    bifocal lenses; bifocals lentes bifocales eyewear accesorios para ojos
    contact lenses lentes de contacto eyewear accesorios para ojos
    glasses; spectacles anteojos eyewear accesorios para ojos
    lenses; eyeglasses lentes eyewear accesorios para ojos
    light prescription glasses (e.g., for reading, using computer, or watching tv) lentes de descanso eyewear accesorios para ojos
    sunglasses gafas de sol eyewear accesorios para ojos
    varifocal lenses lentes progresivos eyewear accesorios para ojos
    fingerless gloves mitones (falanges de los dedos descubiertos)  handwear accesorios para manos
    gloves guantes handwear accesorios para manos
    mittens manoplas (un compartimiento para el pulgar, demás dedos en un solo compartimiento) handwear accesorios para manos
    cap; typically a baseball cap garra; cachuca headwear accesorios para cabeza
    hat sombrero headwear accesorios para cabeza
    something to cover the head; can be made of various materials, such as wool or plastic gorro headwear accesorios para cabeza
    leggings mallas sin pie hosiery calcetería
    leotard malla para gimnasia hosiery calcetería
    pantyhose medias veladas; pantimedias hosiery calcetería
    socks medias; calcetines hosiery calcetería
    thick tights; ballet tights leotardos hosiery calcetería
    tights; stockings medias hosiery calcetería
    scarf (singular); scarves (plural) foulard (singular); foulards (plural); bufanda neckwear accesorios para cuello
    tie corbata neckwear accesorios para cuello
    coat abrigo outerwear ropa exterior
    jacket chaqueta outerwear ropa exterior
    pullover pulóver outerwear ropa exterior
    raincoat impermeable outerwear ropa exterior
    pajamas pijama sleepwear accesorios para dormir
    sports bra brasier deportivo; sostén deportivo; sujetador sportswear ropa deportiva
    sports suit; athletic suit; typically, refers to the bottom and top, such as a sweatsuit conjunto deportiva (Colombia) sportswear ropa deportiva
    sportswear; athletic wear; sports clothes ropa deportiva sportswear ropa deportiva
    sweatpants; typically, refers to the bottom only sudadera sportswear ropa deportiva
    sweatsuit conjunto deportiva (Colombia); traje de entrenamiento sportswear ropa deportiva
    bathing suit bañador (Colombia), traje de baño (España) swimwear trajes de baño
    bikini bikini swimwear trajes de baño
    one-piece swimsuit bañador de una pieza; traje de baño enterizo swimwear trajes de baño
    blouse blusa tops tops
    button-down shirt camisa abotonada; camisa abotonada al frente tops tops
    diminutive of camisa camisilla tops tops
    shirt; typically, more elegant than a t-shirt, such as a polo or button-down shirt camisa tops tops
    sweater saco; suéter; chompa tops tops
    tanktop camiseta sin mangas tops tops
    t-shirt camiseta (Colombia); playera tops tops
    vest chaleco tops tops
    English Spanish Type (English) Type (Spanish)
    boxers; boxer shorts boxers undergarments; underwear ropa interior
    bra brasier; sostén undergarments; underwear ropa interior
    breeches; typically, referring to women's underwear calzones (Colombia); bragas (España) undergarments; underwear ropa interior
    tanga g-string undergarments; underwear ropa interior
    thong/g-string underwear tangas brasileras undergarments; underwear ropa interior
    underpants; skivvies; typically, referring to men's underwear calzoncillos undergarments; underwear ropa interior
    belt cinturón waistwear accesorios para cintura

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - footwear

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about footwear.

    Footwear vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English) Word or phrase (Spanish) Type (English) Type (Spanish)      
    ankle boots botín (singular); botines (plural) footwear calzado
    ballet shoes bailarinas; zapatos para ballet footwear calzado
    boots botas footwear calzado
    canvas shoes zapatos de lona footwear calzado
    espadrilles alpargatas footwear calzado
    flat shoes; flats zapatos de piso footwear calzado
    insoles plantillas footwear calzado
    last horma (para hacer zapatos) footwear calzado
    moccasins mocasín (singular); mocasines footwear calzado
    mountain boots botas de montaña footwear calzado
    running shoes zapatos para correr footwear calzado
    sandals sandalias footwear calzado
    shoes zapatos footwear calzado
    shoetrees hormas (para conservar la forma de zapatos) footwear calzado
    slingback shoes; slingbacks zapatos de talón abierto footwear calzado
    slippers pantuflas; zapatillas footwear calzado
    sports shoes; running shoes tennis footwear calzado
    tennis shoes zapato de tenis footwear calzado
    training shoes; trainers; sneakers zapatos para deportes; zapatos de deporte footwear calzado
    training shoes; trainers; sneakers zapatos para deportes; zapatos de deporte footwear calzado

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - bags

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about bags.

    Bags vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English) Word or phrase (Spanish) Type (English) Type (Spanish)      
    briefcase, attaché case maletín bags bolsos
    purse; handbag bolso; cartera bags bolsos

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - jewelry

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about jewelry.

    Jewelry vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English) Word or phrase (Spanish) Type (English) Type (Spanish)      
    bracelet pulsera jewelry joyería
    bracelet made from "cloth" ("tela") or "fabric" ("tejido") manilla jewelry joyería
    earrings aretes (Colombia); pendientes jewelry joyería
    necklace collar jewelry joyería
    ring anillo jewelry joyería
    wristwatch reloj de pulsera jewelry joyería

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - beauty

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about beauty.

    Beauty vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English) Word or phrase (Spanish) Type (English) Type (Spanish)      
    comb peine personal hygiene higiene personal
    hair dryer secador personal hygiene higiene personal
    hairbrush cepillo para el cabello, cepillo para el pelo personal hygiene higiene personal
    nail clippers cortaúñas personal hygiene higiene personal
    to comb one's hair peinarse personal hygiene higiene personal
    hairtie chulo hair accessories accesorios de cabello
    thick hairpin ebilla hair accessories accesorios de cabello
    thin hairpin gancho hair accessories accesorios de cabello
    blush; referring to makeup rubor makeup maquillaje
    eyeliner delineador makeup maquillaje
    lipstick labial makeup maquillaje
    makeup maquillaje makeup maquillaje
    mascara; referring to makeup for eyelashes pestañina; tinte para las pestañas; máscara de pestañas makeup maquillaje

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - Internet, computing and technology

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about the Internet, computing and technology.

    Internet, computing and technology vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English)       Word or phrase (Spanish)      
    ad; advertisement publicidad; propaganda; anuncio
    buy comprar
    case insensitive indistinto mayúscula o minúscula
    case sensitive distinto mayúscula o minúscula
    catalogue catálogo
    click clic
    close cerrar
    code código
    confirm confirmar
    consent consentimiento
    delivery entrega
    don't sell or rent your personal information to third parties without your consent no vende o alquila tu información personal a terceros sin tu consentimiento
    encrypted data datos cifrados
    enter ingresa
    Forgot your password? ¿Olvidaste tu clave?
    guarantee garantía
    homepage inicio
    image imagen
    item artículo
    logo logotipo
    monthly payments mensualidades
    more information más información
    network red
    new item artículo nuevo
    news; updates novedades
    next siguiente
    online en línea
    password clave
    payment options medios de pago
    personal information información personal
    photo; photograph foto
    previous anterior
    price precio
    privacy privacidad
    privacy policy políticas de privacidad
    product producto
    quantity cantidad
    re-enter repite (por ej., "repite email")
    required fields datos obligatorios
    review revisar
    search (noun); search (verb) búsqueda (sustantivo); buscar (verbo)
    sign up inscríbete; regístrate
    site map; site guide mapa del sitio
    shipping envío
    size talla
    sort by ordenar por
    sell or rent your information vende o alquila tu información
    SSL certificate certificado SSL
    terms and conditions; terms & conditions términos y condiciones
    third parties terceros
    to sign up inscribirse
    username seudónimo
    users usuarios
    Web page página de Web
    website sitio de Web
    your purchase is protected su compra está protegida

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - business

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about business.

    Business vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English)       Word or phrase (Spanish)      
    aggregate income/revenue renta agregada
    amount monto
    ascent; climb; rise subida
    balance sheet estado financiero; balance de situación; balance de estado; balance; balance general
    bar chart gráfico de barras
    breakeven no hay ganancias ni pérdidas; en punto de equilibrio
    buyers compradores
    cash flow statement flujo de caja
    charge cobrar
    column (on a spreadsheet) columna
    column header (on a spreadsheet) nombre de columna
    consumer (singular); consumers (plural); end consumer consumidor (singular); consumidores (plural); usuario final
    consumer confidence confianza del consumidor
    consumer confidence index índice de confianza del consumidor (ICC)
    current; everyday corriente
    demand demanda
    demand curve curva de demanda
    deposit, down payment cuota inicial
    depress; discourage desalientan la actividad del mercado
    diagrams diagramas
    discoveries; findings hallazgos
    displacement; slip desplazamiento
    exports exportaciones
    farming; land and cattle agropecuario
    field (on a spreadsheet); although this word can be used to refer to a field in the countryside, it's also often used to refer to a field on a form campo
    finance finanzas
    form formulario
    graphs gráficos
    goods bienes
    growth rate tasa de crecimiento
    imports importaciones
    income; interest; return; revenue; stock renta
    income statement; profit/loss statement (P&L) estado de ganancias y pérdidas; estado de resultados
    inflation inflación
    inflation rate tasa de inflación
    in monthly installments en cuotas mensuales, in monthly instalments
    leasing; rent; rental alquiler
    length; section; plot; stretch tramo
    loss (singular); losses (plural) pérdida (singular); pérdidas (plural)
    manufacturer fabricante
    market mercado; grupo de compradores y vendedores de un bien o servicio
    market share cuota de mercado
    mold; shape plasmar
    monetary terms términos monetarios
    negative relationship; inverse relationship relación negativa; relación inversa
    null; nil; void nula
    occupants; tenants inquilinos
    operations operaciones
    payments; installments cuotas
    percentage variation variación porcentual
    pie chart gráfico de torta
    positive relationship; direct relationship relación positiva; relación directa
    previous period período anterior
    price level nivel de precio
    production quotas cuotas de producción
    profit (singular); profits (plural) ganancia (singular); ganancias (plural)
    remittance; shipment remesa
    retailer minorista
    sales; revenue ingresos
    section corte
    sellers vendedores
    series of time series de tiempo
    simple view simple vista
    source fuente
    spreadsheet hoja de cálculo
    standard; pattern patrón
    strategies estrategías
    subsidy; allowance; aid; benefit subsidio
    supply; input; materials insumo
    surplus excedente
    taxes impuestos
    transverse section corte trasversal
    unemployment desempleo
    units unidades
    unpredictable impredecible
    watch over recaudar (por ej., "el gobierno recauda impuestos")
    wholesaler mayorista; comerciante al por mayor

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - telephone

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about the telephone.

    Telephone vocabulary
    Word or phrase (English)       Word or phrase (Spanish)      
    area code código de área; prefijo local; lada (México)
    business phone; office phone teléfono de la oficina; teléfono del trabajo
    call me llámame
    Can you lend me your phone?; May I borrow your phone to make a call?; "¿Me regalas un minuto?" is common in Colombia to ask someone if he or she can lend you a mobile/cell phone to make a call ¿Me prestes tu teléfono?; ¿Me preste su teléfono; ¿Me regalas un minuto?
    Can you speak more slowly? ¿Podría usted hablar más despacio?
    Can you try again later?; Call again. ¿Puede volver a llamar más tarde?; Vuelve a llamar.; Marque de nuevo.
    car phone teléfono del auto
    cell phone celular
    collect call llamada por cobrar
    to dial again marcar de nuevo
    Did anyone call me? ¿Alguien me llamó?
    Did I receive any messages? ¿Recibí algún mensaje?
    Don't hang up please.; Hold on, please. No cuelgue, por favor.
    Hello Hola; Aló
    hold on for a moment; one moment, please espérate un momento; espera un momento; espere un momento, por favor; uno momento, por favor
    home phone teléfono de la casa
    I'd like to make a collect call to [country], please. Quiero hacer una llamada por cobrar a [país], por favor.; Me gustaría hacer una llamada por cobrar a [país], por favor.
    I'd like to make a long distande phone call, please; I'd like to make a long distance telephone call, please. Quiero hacer una llamada de larga distancia, por favor.; Me gustaría hacer una llamada de larga distancia, por favor.
    I'll call you te llamo
    I'll call you later te llamo luego
    I would like to speak with [person]. Me gustaría hablar con [persona].
    [Person] is busy. [Persona] está ocupado (m). [Persona] está ocupada (f).
    [Person] isn't here. [Persona] no está.
    I can't hear you, please call again (the equivalent of, "We have a bad phone connection. Please call me again.") No le escucho, favor de marcar de nuevo.; No le escucho, favor de llamarme de nuevo.
    Is [person] there?; May I speak with [person]? ¿Está [persona]?
    I want to make a phone call; I would like to make a phone call quiero hacer una llamada telefónica; me gustaría una llamada telefónica
    land line telephone fijo
    to leave a message dejar un mensaje; dejar un recado
    to leave your name and number; to leave your name and telephone number dejar su nombre y número
    May I leave a message? ¿Puedo dejar un mensaje?
    May I send a fax? ¿Puedo enviar un fax?
    May I speak with [person]? ¿Puedo hablar con [persona]?
    mobile phone teléfono móvil
    operator operadora
    Pardon me. I dialed the wrong number.; I'm sorry. I dialed the wrong number. Perdón, tengo el número equivocado.
    phone call llamada de teléfono; llamada telefónica
    phone number número de teléfono
    to not hang up no colgar
    to tell him/her that I called decirle que llamé
    the line is busy; the telephone line is busy la línea está ocupada
    The person you're asking for is not here.; He/she is not here. No se encuentra.
    This is [persona].; literally, "I am..." Soy [persona].
    to wait a moment esperar un momento
    What is the area code for [city]? ¿Cúal es el código de área de [ciudad]?; ¿Cúal es el prefijo local de [ciudad]?
    Who is speaking?; Who is this? ¿Quién habla?
    with whom (e.g., "¿Con quién hablo?" can be the equivalent of "With whom am I speaking?" or "Who's calling?"; "¿Con quién vas a ir?" means "With whom are you going to go?") con quién
    You have the wrong number.; You dialed the wrong number. Usted tiene el número equivocado.

    Vocabulary (official and jargon) - travel

    Following are some examples of common and helpful words and phrases about travel.

    Travel vocabulary
    Word or Phrase (Spanish)        Meaning (English)      
    airline línea aérea
    airline ticket boleto de avión; pasaje aéreo; billete de avión
    airport security seguridad aeroportuaria; seguridad del aeropuerto
    arrival (s); arrivals (p) llegada (s); llegadas (p)
    baggage check (referring to security inspection of luggage) revisión de equipaje
    baggage claim entrega de equipaje; reclamo de equipaje
    boarding pass pasabordo; copia pasajero; tarjeta de embarque
    boarding time hora embarque
    bus autobús (España); bus (Colombia)
    cable car; railway teleférico
    checked (referring to the airline employee who checked in passenger chequeo
    connection (referring to a travel connection, such as a flight connection conexión
    date checked (referring to the date/time airline employee checked in passenger fecha chequeo
    departure (s); departures (p) salida (s); salidas (p)
    departure gate; gate puerta de embarque; puerta; sala
    destination destino
    emergency exit salida de emergencia
    fire extinguisher extintor
    flight vuelo
    flight date fecha vuelo
    from (referring to place of departure, such as city) origen
    holiday festivo
    ID tag; luggage tag; bag tag ficho de identificación
    integrated fare [e.g., in Medellín, Colombia, you can purchase an "integrado", which is an integrated fair to a given destination; if you purchase an "integrado a Caldas" (literally, "an integrated to Caldas" at the "taquilla" ("ticket booth"), you will two tickets for travel, which include one Metro ticket and one bus transfer ticket (the bus transfer ticket is necessary because the Metro does not yet extend to Caldas)] integrado
    land (e.g., "Voy a ir a San Jerónimo por vía terrestre" means "I'm going to go to San Jerónimo by land" terrestre
    license plate placa
    long weekend (e.g., "Este puente me iré de paseo" means "This long weekend I will go away on a trip") puente
    luggage/baggage equipaje; maletas
    luggage pieces (referring to the number of luggage pieces per passenger) número piezas
    luggage weight peso equipaje
    metro; typically refers to local, rapid, public train transportation metro
    passenger pasajero (masculino); pasajera (femenina)
    passport pasaporte
    please fasten your seatbelts por favor, abrochense los cinturones
    point of sale punto de venta
    public service servicio público
    pull; lever (e.g., the pull or lever that opens a door or stops a train in the event of an emergency palanca
    rates tarifas
    ring the bell, do not shout, the driver's cabin is closed timbre no grite, cabina cerrada
    ring the bell with anticipation prior to your stop; in other words, don't wait until the last moment to ring the bell prior to your stop timbre con anticipación
    room time (referring to the time that passengers are required to be in the waiting room/at the departure gate in advance of a flight hora sala
    seat; typically refers to the place on a ticket (e.g., an airline, train, or show/concert/performance ticket) where your seat assignment/seat number is provided; another meaning of "puesto" is "place" (e.g., "primer puesto" refers to first place in a contest) puesto
    seatbelt cinturón de seguridad
    smoking is prohibited prohibido fumar
    ticket tiquete; boleta
    ticket office (e.g., the ticket window at the public train in Medellín, Colombia, referred to as the "Metro", is called the "taquilla"); another meaning of "taquilla" is "box office" (e.g., box office at the movie theater) taquilla
    time of departure hora salida
    to (referring to place of arrival, such as city) destino
    travel guide; tour guide guía del recorrido
    tray table bandeja extensible; bandeja plegable; bandeja de entrada
    trip; outing; tour; excursion (e.g., "Estoy de paseo" can be the equivalent of "I'm on vacation" or "I'm just visiting"; "Voy a irme de paseo" is the equivalent of "I'm going to go away on a trip") paseo; recorrido
    trip code código viaje
    value (e.g., ticket price, ticket value) valor
    vehicle vehículo

    Common Spanish grammar errors

    Here are some examples of common grammatical errors made by foreigners that Amañado has noted:

    • Don't use “una” before “otra” or “un” before “otro”. For example, one should say “otra vez”, not “una otra vez”.
    • Use “más de” when one speaks about quantity and “más que” when one is comparing 2 or more things. For example, one should say “más de 2 millones”, not “más que 2 millones” and one should say “ella trabaja más duro que él”, not “ella trabaja más duro de él”.
    • Pay attention to the gender of a noun to give the adjective that accompanies it the correct ending. For example, one says “buena universidad”, not “buen universidad”, because the noun “universidad” is a feminine noun and one says “buen clima”, not “buena clima” because “clima” is a masculine noun.

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